Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita: a literature review

Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2019 Dec 4;14(1):283. doi: 10.1186/s13023-019-1229-8.


Background: Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC) is a rare capillary malformation characterised by persistent reticulated marbled erythema. It tends to be associated with cutaneous atrophy, ulcerations and body asymmetry. CMTC is usually reported to be a benign condition; however, associated anomalies are not rare. Here, we have compiled information on published CMTC patients with the aim to evaluate the proposed diagnostic criteria by Kienast et al. and address the clinical manifestations, associated anomalies, differential diagnoses, management and prognosis. Our review is based on a search of the PubMed database which retrieved studies between 1922 and April 2019. The search yielded 148 original articles with a total of 485 patients.

Results: Of the identified patients, 24.5% had generalised CMTC, 66.8% had localised and 8.7% had a non-specified distribution of CMTC. Associated anomalies were observed in 42.5% of patients, predominantly body asymmetry and neurological defects like seizure and developmental delay. Fewer patients (10.1%) had ophthalmological defects, usually glaucoma. The major criterium "absence of venectasia" was not met in 20.4% of patients.

Conclusion: We suggest that children with CMTC should be referred to an ophthalmologist for regular follow-up, and children with CMTC affecting the legs should be monitored for leg length discrepancy throughout the growth period. Furthermore, we suggest reconsideration of the major criterium "absence of venectasia" from the proposed diagnostic criteria, and instead include body asymmetry.

Keywords: Associated anomalies; CMTC; Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita; Glaucoma; Leg length discrepancy; Van Lohuizen syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis
  • Animals
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / diagnosis
  • Foot Deformities, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Glaucoma / diagnosis
  • Hand Deformities, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability / diagnosis
  • Joint Instability / diagnosis
  • Leg Length Inequality / diagnosis
  • Livedo Reticularis
  • Skin Diseases, Vascular / diagnosis*
  • Telangiectasis / congenital*
  • Telangiectasis / diagnosis

Supplementary concepts

  • Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita
  • Van Maldergem Wetzburger Verloes syndrome