RETRACTED: KLF4/Ch25h axis activated by metformin suppresses EndoMT in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 Feb 19;522(4):838-844. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.11.181. Epub 2019 Dec 1.


This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( This article has been retracted at the request of the authors. The authors found that the experiment to show that HG decreased CD31 (Figure 1 E) and increased Vimentin (Figure 1 F) mRNA level could not be repeated. Moreover, they found that HG had no effect on Ch25h protein level and cannot repeat the experiments that HG decreased Ch25h mRNA level (Figure 1 G). In summary, they cannot conclude that HG suppressed EndoMT through KLF4/Ch25h, which made great weakening to the protection of KLF4/Ch25h axis in blood glucose dysfunction-induced endothelial dysfunction and diabetes. The authors wish to apologize for any inconvenience they may have caused.

Keywords: Ch25h; EndoMT; Endothelial dysfunction; KLF4; LXRα; Metformin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Retracted Publication

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Endothelium / drug effects
  • Endothelium / metabolism*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / drug effects
  • Glucose / toxicity
  • Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells / drug effects
  • Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Kruppel-Like Factor 4
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Liver X Receptors / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mesoderm / drug effects
  • Mesoderm / metabolism*
  • Metformin / pharmacology*
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Steroid Hydroxylases / metabolism*


  • KLF4 protein, human
  • Klf4 protein, mouse
  • Kruppel-Like Factor 4
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Liver X Receptors
  • Metformin
  • Steroid Hydroxylases
  • cholesterol 25-hydroxylase
  • Glucose