Stem cell differentiation and pluripotency are important stages in the regenerative medicine. The design and fabrication of user-friendly approach to save cost and time as well as monitor this process is crucial. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive technique to fabricate smart sensors for biological applications. In this technique, double enhancement effect on SERS signals is induced by utilizing graphene oxide (GO)-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The undifferentiated neural stem cells (NSCs) produced Raman peaks which were 3.5 times higher than those obtained from normal metal structures. The surface decorated using 3D GO-encapsulated GNPs was an effective, cost-saving, and nondestructive tool for distinguishing the differentiation state of NSCs. Moreover, the substrate composed of 3D GO-encapsulated gold nanoparticles was also effective for distinguishing the differentiation state of single NSC by using electrochemical and electrical techniques. Therefore, the recommended technique can be utilized as a powerful nondestructive in situ monitoring tool for the identification of the differentiation potential of various kinds of stem cells.
Keywords: Differentiation state; Graphene oxide; Nanotechnology; SERS; Stem cell.
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