Significance of Vitamin D on the Susceptibility of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - A Meta-Analysis

Indian J Endocrinol Metab. Sep-Oct 2019;23(5):514-524. doi: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_184_19.


Vitamin D plays an important role in glucose tolerance by stimulating insulin secretion and evidences suggest a contradictory result on the association between vitamin D status and risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present updated meta-analysis has been undertaken to find out the joined effect of vitamin D status on the risk of effect GDM considering previously published articles. Data were collected through literature search using electronic databases to retrieve relevant published research articles using various combinations of the following keywords, "vitamin D," "vitamin D deficiency," "cholecalciferol," "25-hydroxyvitamin D," "25(OH) D," "gestational diabetes mellitus," and "GDM." A total of 36 studies including 7,596 GDM cases and 23,377 non-GDM controls were involved in this study. Overall, pooled meta-analysis showed that pregnant women diagnosed with GDM have 18% higher risk of GDM risk when compared with controls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.25; P = 0.00] with high heterogeneity (I2 = 73.29). The mean difference was also significantly different between cases and controls (OR = -0.18, 95% CI - 0.22 to - 0.14; P = 0.00). Subgroup analysis showed significant results with age more than 30 years, Asian and European regions, and case-control, cross-sectional, and nested case-control study design. Low concentration of vitamin D is associated with the development of GDM. Although in future more studies especially systematically designed clinical trials based on vitamin D supplementation with large sample size on different population are needed to elucidate the exact concentration of vitamin D during pregnancy as well as before and after pregnancy.

Keywords: Cholecalciferol; GDM; gestational diabetes mellitus; meta-analysis; vitamin D.

Publication types

  • Review