Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides, are small and mostly polycationic molecules that form part of the innate immune response. There are currently more than 3000 experimentally reported AMPs. Particularly in frogs, the temporin family has been discovered as potential AMPs. The aim of this work is to review the latest publications about this class of peptides, discuss their properties, and present an update of the last studies and new discoveries in the field. More than 130 temporins have been identified in this family. The most studied temporins are temporin A (TA), temporin B (TB), and temporin L (TL). These peptides showed antimicrobial activity against gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Since the discovery of temporins in 1996, several groups of researchers isolated different peptides from various species of frogs that were included as members of this family. Although antimicrobial activity of many temporins has not been analyzed yet, most of them showed antimicrobial and antifungal activities. A combination of nanotechnology and AMPs for temporins in different antimicrobial treatments could be a promising alternative for resistant pathogens. These studies demonstrate that, even with the advancement in scientific research on the composition and antimicrobial activity of temporins, further studies are necessary to wholly understand their components and mechanisms of action.
Keywords: antifungals; antimicrobial peptides; drug delivery; frog.