Vital Signs: Status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing, Viral Suppression, and HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis - United States, 2013-2018

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Dec 6;68(48):1117-1123. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6848e1.


Background: Approximately 38,000 new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur in the United States each year; these infections can be prevented. A proposed national initiative, Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America, incorporates three strategies (diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection) and seeks to leverage testing, treatment, and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce new HIV infections in the United States by at least 90% by 2030. Targets to reach this goal include that at least 95% of persons with HIV receive a diagnosis, 95% of persons with diagnosed HIV infection have a suppressed viral load, and 50% of those at increased risk for acquiring HIV are prescribed PrEP. Using surveillance, pharmacy, and other data, CDC determined the current status of these three initiative strategies.

Methods: CDC analyzed HIV surveillance data to estimate annual number of new HIV infections (2013-2017); estimate the percentage of infections that were diagnosed (2017); and determine the percentage of persons with diagnosed HIV infection with viral load suppression (2017). CDC analyzed surveillance, pharmacy, and other data to estimate PrEP coverage, reported as a percentage and calculated as the number of persons who were prescribed PrEP divided by the estimated number of persons with indications for PrEP.

Results: The number of new HIV infections remained stable from 2013 (38,500) to 2017 (37,500) (p = 0.448). In 2017, an estimated 85.8% of infections were diagnosed. Among 854,206 persons with diagnosed HIV infection in 42 jurisdictions with complete reporting of laboratory data, 62.7% had a suppressed viral load. Among an estimated 1.2 million persons with indications for use of PrEP, 18.1% had been prescribed PrEP in 2018.

Conclusion: Accelerated efforts to diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection are needed to achieve the U.S. goal of at least 90% reduction in the number of new HIV infections by 2030.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / statistics & numerical data*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis / statistics & numerical data*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Viral Load / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult