Effects of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) immunoneutralization on mouse motor coordination and memory

Peptides. 2020 Mar;125:170227. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2019.170227. Epub 2019 Dec 2.


Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a regulatory peptide expressed in the mammalian upper small intestine, and both GIP and its receptor (GIPR) are expressed in the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain as well. While learning and memory deficits have been observed in GIPR-/- mice, the effects of peripheral GIP immunoneutralization on motor-coordination, learning, and memory have not been examined. In the present study, adult GIPR-/- mice (KO) and age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 J mice (WT) received weekly vehicle PBS injections for 12 weeks, while a third group of wild-type mice were injected weekly for 12 weeks with 30 mg/kg body weight humanized GIP-mAb (AB) to assess the possibility of long-term effects of peripheral GIP antagonism on rodent memory and behavior. All mice groups then underwent a battery of tests that evaluated motor behavior, body coordination, and memory. Performance deficits in several memory studies after 12 weeks of treatment were demonstrated in KO, but not in AB or WT mice. Body coordination performance showed no significant differences among the 3 groups. A similar short-term study (3 injections over 9 days) was also conducted and the results were similar to those from the long-term study. Thus, short-term and long-term peripheral GIP antagonism by GIP-mAb did not appear to affect learning and memory in mice, consistent with the notion that the GIP-mAb does not cross the blood brain barrier. Furthermore, our studies indicate that GIP signaling in the brain appears to involve local neurocrine pathways.

Keywords: Blood brain barrier; GIP; Gastric inhibitory polypeptide; Memory; Monoclonal antibody.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / immunology
  • Learning / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Memory / drug effects*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Motor Activity / drug effects*
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor