Three cases of intramural haematoma of the oesophagus are reported. Two cases mimicked benign neoplasms of the distal oesophagus. One of these resembled a polypoid tumour; the other occurred in a patient with known achalasia. Two cases presented with chest pain and haematemesis, the third presented with dysphagia and odynophagia only. One case was truly spontaneous and two cases were thought to be secondary to trauma from food.