Objective: To assess the prevalence and clinical features of neurologic involvement in patients with acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Southern Switzerland.
Methods: Among 1,940 consecutive patients investigated for acute hepatitis E, we identified 141 cases of acute of HEV infection (anti-HEV immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G both reactive and/or HEV RNA positive) between June 2014 and September 2017. Neurologic cases were followed up for 6 months. We compared patients with and without neurologic symptoms.
Results: Neurologic symptoms occurred in 43 acute HEV cases (30.4%) and consisted of neuralgic amyotrophy (NA, n = 15, 10.6%) and myalgia (n = 28, 19.8%). All NA cases were immunocompetent. Men had higher odds (OR = 5.2, CI 1.12-24.0, p = 0.03) of developing NA after infection with HEV, and in 3 couples simultaneously infected with HEV, only men developed NA. Bilateral involvement of NA was predominant (2:1) and occurred only in men. Seven NA cases were viremic (all genotype 3), but HEV was undetectable in their CSF. In the acute phase of NA, 9 patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and 4 with prednisone, reporting no side effects and improvement in pain and strength. Myalgia occurred both without (n = 16) or with (n = 12) concomitant elevated serum creatinine kinase. Seven cases with myalgia in the shoulder girdle did not have muscle weakness ("forme fruste" of NA).
Conclusions: Neurologic symptoms occurred in one-third of acute HEV infections and consisted of NA and myalgia. NA seems to occur more frequently in men infected by HEV and has a predominant (but not exclusive) bilateral involvement.
Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.