Redox Status and Antioxidative Cofactor Metals Influence Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Colloid Goiter

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2020 Oct;197(2):349-359. doi: 10.1007/s12011-019-01995-x. Epub 2019 Dec 6.


Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the endocrine neoplasm that occurs the most often worldwide, and its molecular pathophysiology is still not well characterized. Redox status is recognized as an important factor of carcinogenesis, but its influence on the PTC's clinical course needs to be better elucidated. The aim of this research was to determine the tissue redox status of 65 PTC and 45 colloid goiter (CG) patients together with antioxidative cofactor metal profiling. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was used to access the prooxidation level, while antioxidant mechanisms were estimated by assaying the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The antioxidative cofactor metals included quantification of Se, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentration. PTC tissues had normal prooxidation levels and increased GPx and GR activity. The activity of SOD has been significantly reduced in multicentric PTC dissemination and increased in smokers. SOD activity was directly dependent on MDA levels in CG tissues. CG patients with retrosternal goiter had reduced MDA concentration and SOD activity. Numerous correlations between redox parameters in PTC tissues reveal good co-activation of antioxidative mechanisms and cooperative response on prooxidation. PTC tissues had decreased Se levels and increased concentration of Cu and Mn in comparison to other tissues. MDA concentration and SOD activity were significant predictors of PTC's multicentric dissemination and for the existence of lymph node metastases, respectively. Particularly, the concentration of Cu predicted the retrosternal localization in CG patients. Significant findings presented in this study provide a possibility for development of novel prognostic molecular biomarkers of PTC and CG.

Keywords: Colloid goiter; Metals; Oxidative stress; Papillary thyroid carcinoma.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Colloids
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Goiter*
  • Humans
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Thyroid Cancer, Papillary
  • Thyroid Neoplasms*


  • Antioxidants
  • Colloids
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase