Global review of phthalates in edible oil: An emerging and nonnegligible exposure source to human

Sci Total Environ. 2020 Feb 20:704:135369. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135369. Epub 2019 Nov 23.


This work investigated the presence of seven major phthalates in nine different kinds of edible oils (i.e. olive, rapeseed, peanut, sesame, tea seed, corn, soybean, sunflower, and blended oil) and their potential impacts on human. The respective total average phthalates concentrations in the oils studied were found to be 6.01, 2.79, 2.63, 2.03, 1.73, 1.66, 1.57, 1.26, and 0.72 mg/kg. On the other hand, the seven main phthalates in the edible oils with the average concentration ranked from high to low were in order of DiNP, DEHP, DiDP, DBP, DiBP, DEP, and BBP, with 0.90, 0.81, 0.79, 0.71, 0.22, 0.17, and 0.10 mg/kg, respectively. The estimated maximum human daily intakes (EDI) of DEHP, DBP, DiBP, DiNP, BBP, DEP, and DiDP via edible oils were determined to be 552, 2996, 121, 356, 268, 66, and 563 μg/p/d, respectively. It was further revealed that the maximum human EDI of DEHP, DBP, BBP, and DiBP through consumption of edible oils were 2.92, 6.79, 1.24, and 1.06 times higher than those via bottled water. The calculated average estrogenic equivalence (EEQ) values of the seven major phthalates in edible oils fell into the range of 2.7-958.1 ng E2/L, which were 45-396 times of those in bottled water. With published works, the complete distributions of 15 phthalates in nine kinds of edible oils were established and assessed for the health risks based on EDI and EEQ. This work provided the first evidence that edible oil is a potential source of phthalates, thus the potential adverse estrogenic effects on human health should need to be assessed in a holistic manner.

Keywords: Edible oil; Estrogenic effects; Human daily intakes; Migration; Phthalates.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Dietary Exposure
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / analysis*
  • Environmental Pollutants / analysis*
  • Food
  • Phthalic Acids / analysis*


  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Phthalic Acids
  • phthalic acid