Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2020 Mar;50(2):405-418. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2019.10.009. Epub 2019 Dec 5.


Canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) refers to a syndrome of diseases that can be caused by several different bacterial and viral pathogens. These pathogens are often highly contagious, and coinfections are common. Clinical signs are frequently mild and self-limiting; however, some individual cases progress to severe disease. Clinical diagnosis of CIRDC is often based on history of exposure and physical examination findings; however, determining the etiologic agent requires application of specific diagnostic tests, and results can be difficult to interpret because of widespread subclinical infections.

Keywords: Bordetella; CIRD; Kennel cough; Parainfluenza virus; Pneumonia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bacterial Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Dog Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Dog Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Dog Diseases* / microbiology
  • Dog Diseases* / prevention & control
  • Dogs
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / diagnosis
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / drug therapy
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / microbiology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / veterinary*
  • Viral Vaccines / therapeutic use


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Viral Vaccines