Urinary sulphated glycosaminoglycans excretion in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin

Arch Physiol Biochem. 2022 Apr;128(2):507-513. doi: 10.1080/13813455.2019.1697889. Epub 2019 Dec 9.


Objective: The pattern of urinary excretion of total sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and their particular types: chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate (CS/DS) and heparan sulphate (HS) was analysed in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with metformin in monotherapy for the period of six months.

Methods: The urinary sulphated glycosaminoglycans were quantitated using standardised dye (1.9-dimethylmethylene blue)-binding method and normalised to creatinine level.

Results: Urinary total GAGs, CS/DS and HS levels were significantly higher in untreated diabetic patients in comparison to healthy subjects. Moreover, it was observed that urinary total GAGs, CS/DS and HS levels in diabetic patients after six-month metformin therapy were significantly decreased versus pre-treatment situation.

Conclusions: The obtained results suggest that the six-month treatment with metformin in obese patients with T2DM has a regulating influence on the systemic changes in proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, resulting in a decrease in the urinary excretion of total GAGs, CS/DS and HS.

Keywords: HOMA-IR2; Urinary glycosaminoglycans; chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate; heparan sulphate; metformin; type 2 diabetes mellitus.

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Glycosaminoglycans / urine
  • Humans
  • Metformin* / therapeutic use
  • Obesity / complications


  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • A73025
  • Metformin