Our data first represent the variety of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutations in Western Siberia. LHON is a disorder caused by pathogenic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), inherited maternally and presents mainly in young adults, predominantly males. Clinically, LHON manifests itself as painless central vision loss, resulting in early onset of disability. The epidemiology of LHON has not been fully investigated yet. In this study, we report 44 genetically unrelated families with LHON manifestation. We performed whole mtDNA genome sequencing and provided genealogical and molecular genetic data on mutations and haplogroup background of LHON patients. Known "primary" pathogenic mtDNA mutations (MITOMAP) were found in 32 families: m.11778G>A represents 53.10% (17/32), m.3460G>A-21.90% (7/32), m.14484T>C-18.75% (6/32), and rare m.10663T>C and m.3635G>A represent 6.25% (2/32). We describe potentially pathogenic m.4659G>A in one subject without known pathogenic mutations, and potentially pathogenic m.6261G>A, m.8412T>C, m.8551T>C, m.9444C>T, m.9921G>A, and m.15077G>A in families with known pathogenic mutations confirmed. We suppose these mutations could contribute to the pathogenesis of optic neuropathy development. Our results indicate that haplogroup affiliation and mutational spectrum of the Western Siberian LHON cohort substantially deviate from those of European populations.
Keywords: LHON; Siberian population; ancient mutation; specific genetic background.