Effects of Synergistic Inhibition on α-glucosidase by Phytoalexins in Soybeans

Biomolecules. 2019 Dec 5;9(12):828. doi: 10.3390/biom9120828.


To determine the mechanism of action of the effects of phytoalexins in soybeans, we analyzed α-glucosidase inhibition kinetics using Michaelis-Menten plots and Lineweaver-Burk plots. The results showed that the type of inhibition with glyceollin was competitive, that of genistein was noncompetitive, that of daidzein was uncompetitive, and luteolin showed a mixed mode of action. The Ki values were determined using a Dixon plot as glyceollin, 18.99 μM; genistein, 15.42 μM; luteolin, 16.81 μM; and daidzein, 9.99 μM. Furthermore, potential synergistic effects between glyceollin and the three polyphenols were investigated. A combination of glyceollin and luteolin at a ratio of 3:7 exhibited synergistic effects on α-glucosidase inhibition, having a combination index (CI) of 0.64244, according to the CI-isobologram equation. Collectively, these results showed that a combination of glyceollin and luteolin has the potential to inhibit α-glucosidase activity via a synergistic mode of inhibition.

Keywords: combination index; daidzein; enzyme kinetics; genistein; glyceollin; luteolin; phytoalexins; α-glucosidase inhibitor.

MeSH terms

  • Drug Synergism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects
  • Genistein / pharmacology
  • Glycine max / enzymology*
  • Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Isoflavones / pharmacology
  • Luteolin / pharmacology
  • Phytoalexins
  • Plant Proteins / pharmacology
  • Pterocarpans / pharmacology
  • Sesquiterpenes / pharmacology*
  • alpha-Glucosidases / metabolism


  • Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors
  • Isoflavones
  • Plant Proteins
  • Pterocarpans
  • Sesquiterpenes
  • daidzein
  • glyceollin
  • Genistein
  • alpha-Glucosidases
  • Luteolin
  • Phytoalexins