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. 2019 Dec 7;11(12):3004.
doi: 10.3390/nu11123004.

The Effect of Hops ( Humulus lupulus L.) Extract Supplementation on Weight Gain, Adiposity and Intestinal Function in Ovariectomized Mice

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Free PMC article

The Effect of Hops ( Humulus lupulus L.) Extract Supplementation on Weight Gain, Adiposity and Intestinal Function in Ovariectomized Mice

Alison K Hamm et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Estrogen decline during menopause is associated with altered metabolism, weight gain and increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. The gut microbiota also plays a role in the development of cardiometabolic dysfunction and is also subject to changes associated with age-related hormone changes. Phytoestrogens are plant-based estrogen mimics that have gained popularity as dietary supplements for the treatment or prevention of menopause-related symptoms. These compounds have the potential to both modulate and be metabolized by the gut microbiota. Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) contain potent phytoestrogen precursors, which rely on microbial biotransformation in the gut to estrogenic forms. We supplemented ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SHAM) C57BL/6 mice, with oral estradiol (E2), a flavonoid-rich extract from hops, or a placebo carrier oil, to observe effects on adiposity, inflammation, and gut bacteria composition. Hops extract (HE) and E2 protected against increased visceral adiposity and liver triglyceride accumulation in OVX animals. Surprisingly, we found no evidence of OVX having a significant impact on the overall gut bacterial community structure. We did find differences in the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, which was lower with HE treatment in the SHAM group relative to OVX E2 treatment and to placebo in the SHAM group.

Keywords: 8-prenylnaringenin; adiposity; dysbiosis; hops; menopause; microbiota; obesity; ovariectomy.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Treatment and control groups used in the study.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Liver triglycerides in milligrams per gram tissue. Bars denoted with unique letters have significant differences at p < 0.05.
Figure 3
Figure 3
(A) Pharmacokinetics of XN, IX and 8PN in serum after oral administration of hop extract in ng/mL; (B) Pharmacokinetics of glucuronidated compounds of XN, IX, 8PN and 6PN. Values are relative peak area.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase levels in ileum. Bars denoted with unique letters have significant differences at p < 0.05.
Figure 5
Figure 5
(A) Relative abundance of bacterial phyla in the cecum. (B) Microbial relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the cecum. Bars denoted with unique letters have significant differences at p < 0.05.

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