Leishmaniasis is a widely distributed protozoan vector-born disease affecting almost 350 million people. Initially, chemotherapeutic drugs were employed for leishmania treatment but they had toxic side effects. Various nanotechnology-based techniques and products have emerged as anti-leishmanial drugs, including liposomes, lipid nano-capsules, metal and metallic oxide nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanovaccines, due to their unique properties, such as bioavailability, lowered toxicity, targeted drug delivery, and biodegradability. Many new studies have emerged with nanoparticles serving as promising therapeutic agent for anti-leishmanial disease treatment. Liposomal Amphotericin B (AmB) is one of the successful nano-based drugs with high efficacy and negligible toxicity. A new nanovaccine concept has been studied as a carrier for targeted delivery. This review discusses different nanotechnology-based techniques, materials, and their efficacies in leishmaniasis treatment and their futuristic improvements.
Keywords: Leishmania disease; leishmaniasis; liposomes; nanotechnology; nanovaccine; promastigote.