Vitamin D Status After Gastric Bypass or Sleeve Gastrectomy over 4 Years of Follow-up

Obes Surg. 2020 Apr;30(4):1473-1481. doi: 10.1007/s11695-019-04318-0.


Background: Bariatric surgery for severe obesity can lead to micronutrient/vitamin deficiencies.

Aims: To study baseline and post-surgical prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

Participants and setting: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery in a university teaching hospital in North West England.

Methods: We performed an observational cohort analysis of longitudinal data on vitamin D and related parameters in patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Patients were routinely recommended daily combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation post-surgery.

Results: We studied 460 patients who had completed at least 12 months post-operatively; mean (standard deviation) age was 48.0 (10.5) years, weight 144.7 (27.3) kg and body mass index 50.0 (7.6) kg/m2; 292 (63.5%) underwent gastric bypass and 168 (36.5%) sleeve gastrectomy. Vitamin D level was 33.1 (23.9) nmol/L at baseline, rising to 57.1 (23.1) nmol/L at 12 months post-surgery. Whereas 43.2% had vitamin D deficiency and 34.7% insufficiency preoperatively, 8.9% and 26.7% had deficiency and insufficiency, respectively, at 12 months with similar trends up to 4 years of follow-up. There were no significant differences between procedures or sexes in vitamin D levels or sufficiency rates.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were prevalent pre-surgery and reduced significantly with routine supplementation post-surgery.

Keywords: Bariatric surgery; Calcium; Hyperparathyroidism; Parathyroid hormone; Vitamin D deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • England
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gastrectomy
  • Gastric Bypass*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity, Morbid* / surgery
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / etiology


  • Vitamin D