It is generally agreed that there are several different types of animal aggression that may be distinguished in terms of their neural organization and that discrete lesions, in particular brain areas, may affect one but not other types of aggression. In this study the effects of electrolytic, bilateral lesions in lateral septum on offense and defense were examined in pigeons. Subjects were tested by introducing an adult conspecific stranger into their home cage. A postoperative increase in offensive patterns and a long-lasting drop in defense were observed in the lesioned birds. Its remarkable resemblance to the effects of antianxiety drugs, as well as the difference between the behavioral effects of medial septal damage are also discussed.