Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) frequently fail to achieve glycemic goals and have excess cardiovascular risk and premature death. Adjunctive agents may play a role in reducing morbidity, mortality, and the adverse sequelae of insulin treatment. A surge in type 2 diabetes drug development has revealed agents with benefits beyond glucose lowering, including cardiovascular risk reduction. Could these benefits translate to T1D? Specific trials for T1D demonstrate substantial hemoglobin (Hb)A1c reductions with sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitors (SGLTis) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)1 agonists, and modest improvements with metformin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i), and pramlintide. Studies exploring cardiovascular risk reduction are warranted. This review synthesizes the emerging literature for researchers and clinicians treating people with T1D. Challenges in T1D research are discussed.
Keywords: adjunctive treatment; cardiovascular risk; type 1 diabetes.
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