Routine postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for third molar extractions. However, amoxicillin still continues to be used customarily in several clinical practices worldwide to prevent infections. A prospective cohort study was conducted in cohorts who underwent third molar extractions with (group EA, n = 20) or without (group E, n = 20) amoxicillin (250 mg three times daily for 5 days). Further, a control group without amoxicillin and extractions (group C, n = 17) was included. Salivary samples were collected at baseline, 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-weeks and 3 months to assess the bacterial shift and antibiotic resistance gene changes employing 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Illumina-Miseq) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A further 6-month follow-up was performed for groups E and EA. Seven operational taxonomic units reported a significant change from baseline to 3 months for group EA (adjusted p < 0.05). No significant change in relative abundance of bacteria and β-lactamase resistance genes (TEM-1) was observed over 6 months for any group (adjusted p > 0.05). In conclusion, the salivary microbiome is resilient to an antibiotic challenge by a low-dose regimen of amoxicillin. Further studies evaluating the effect of routinely used higher dose regimens of amoxicillin on gram-negative bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes are warranted.