AT-3 cells, one of anaplastic cell lines established from the Dunning prostatic carcinoma of rats, were able to grow under serum-free conditions in a state of suspension detached from a substratum. Radioimmunoassay using monoclonal antibody against rat insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) revealed the presence of IGF-II-related peptide in acid-ethanol extracts of lyophilized serum-free media conditioned by AT-3 cells. The peptide contents in the culture media increased with increase in cell number; 71 ng at 3.0 X 10(6) cells and 449 ng at 4.6 X 10(7) cells. IGF-II-related peptide was hardly detectable in acid-ethanol extracts of AT-3 cells harvested after 13-days culture. These results indicate that AT-3 cells produce IGF-II-related peptide and may release it into the culture media.