Oncogenic RAS mutations drive cancers at many sites. Recent reports suggest that RAS dimerization, multimerization, and clustering correlate strongly with activation of RAS signaling. We have found that re-expression of DIRAS3, a RAS-related small GTPase tumor suppressor that is downregulated in multiple cancers, inhibits RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by interacting directly with RAS-forming heteromers, disrupting RAS clustering, inhibiting Raf kinase activation, and inhibiting transformation and growth of cancer cells and xenografts. Disruption of K-RAS cluster formation requires the N terminus of DIRAS3 and interaction of both DIRAS3 and K-RAS with the plasma membrane. Interaction of DIRAS3 with both K-RAS and H-RAS suggests a strategy for inhibiting oncogenic RAS function.
Keywords: ARHI; DIRAS3; RAS inhibitor; cluster; dimer; heteromer; ovarian cancer; pancreatic cancer; transformation.
Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.