BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy, but the pathogenesis of HCC is unclear. TMUB1 has an inhibitory effect on normal hepatocytes, but its role in HCC has not been reported. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used immunohistochemistry to observe the expression of transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain containing 1 protein (TMUB1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in 132 HCC tissue specimens. The expression of TMUB1, STAT1, and CCND1 in HCC cells were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays were used for detecting HCC cells proliferation, and Transwell assays were used for observing the invasion and migration of HCC cells. RESULTS TMUB1 was negatively correlated with HCC pathological malignancy; low expression of TMUB1 indicated poor prognosis. TMUB1 inhibited proliferation but not metastasis in HCC cells. TMUB1 expression was positively correlated with STAT1 in 132 HCC tissues, TMUB1 promoted the expression of STAT1, and suppressed the expression of CCND1 in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS TMUB1 negatively regulates hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation via regulating STAT1.