Omega-3 Fatty Acids Effects on Inflammatory Biomarkers and Lipid Profiles Among Diabetic and Cardiovascular Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 11;9(1):18867. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-54535-x.

Abstract

The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate omega-3 fatty acids' influence on 12 inflammatory biomarkers-LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, TG, HbA1c, Apo AI, Apo AII, Apo B, CRP, TNF-α, glucose, and fasting blood glucose among diabetic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. We searched articles in six database engines, and 16 of the 696 articles reviewed met the inclusion criteria. Among these, lipid and inflammatory biomarkers investigated commonly included total cholesterol (11 studies), LDL, and TG (10 studies each). Overall, omega-3 was associated with a significant reduction in Apo AII among diabetic patients, as compared to different controls (-8.0 mg/dL 95% CI: -12.71, -3.29, p = 0.0009), triglycerides (-44.88 mg/dL 95% CI: -82.6, -7.16, p < 0.0001), HDL (-2.27 mg/dL 95% CI: -3.72, -0.83, p = 0.002), and increased fasting blood glucose (16.14 mg/dL 95% CI: 6.25, 26.04, p = 0.001). Omega-3 also was associated with increased LDL among CVD patients (2.10 mg/dL 95% CI: 1.00, 3.20, p = 0.0002). We conclude that omega-3 fatty acids may be associated with lower inflammatory biomarkers among diabetic and cardiovascular patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential benefits; however, it is essential to recommend that patients consult with clinicians before any omega-3 intake.