Impact of Chloroprocaine on the Eligibility for Hospital Discharge in Patients Requiring Ambulatory Surgery Under Spinal Anesthesia: An Observational Multicenter Prospective Study

Adv Ther. 2020 Jan;37(1):541-551. doi: 10.1007/s12325-019-01172-5. Epub 2019 Dec 11.


Introduction: This observational study was designed to assess the use of spinal anesthesia with chloroprocaine in the context of ambulatory surgery.

Methods: A prospective, multicenter, observational study was carried out among 33 private or public centers between May 2014 and January 2015 and adult patients, scheduled for a short ambulatory surgery under spinal anesthesia with chloroprocaine. The primary outcomes were anesthetic effectiveness, defined as performance of the whole surgical procedure without any additional anesthetic agent, and the time to achieve eligibility for hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes were the effect of chloroprocaine on motor and sensory blocks, patients' satisfaction, and the use of analgesics in the first 24 h after surgery.

Results: Among the 615 enrolled patients, 56% were male, the mean age was 47.2 ± 15.2 years, and most patients had an ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) status of 1 (63.7%). Main surgical procedures performed were orthopedic (62.6%) and gynecologic (16.1%), and the mean duration of surgery was 26.7 ± 16.7 min. The overall anesthetic success rate was 93.8% (95% CI [91.5%; 95.6%]) for the 580 patients with available data for primary criteria. The failure rate was lower than 7% for all surgical procedures, except for gynecologic surgery (14.8%; 95% CI [8.1%; 23.9%]). The average times of eligibility for hospital discharge and effective discharge were 252.7 ± 82.7 min and 313.8 ± 109.9 min, respectively. The time of eligibility for hospital discharge is defined as the recovery of the patient's normal clinical parameters and the time of effective discharge is defined as the time for the patient to leave the hospital after surgery. Eligibility for patient's discharge was achieved more rapidly in private than public hospitals (236.3 ± 77.2 min vs. 280.9 ± 80.7 min, respectively, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: This study showed positive results on the effectiveness of chloroprocaine as a short-duration anesthetic and could be used to reduce the time to achieve eligibility for hospital discharge.

Trial registration: identifier, NCT02152293. Registered on May 6, 2014. Date of enrollment of the first participant in the trial May 7, 2014.

Keywords: Ambulatory surgery; Chloroprocaine; Hospital discharge; Spinal anesthesia.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ambulatory Surgical Procedures / statistics & numerical data*
  • Anesthesia, Spinal / methods*
  • Anesthetics, Local / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain Measurement
  • Patient Discharge / statistics & numerical data*
  • Procaine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Procaine / therapeutic use
  • Prospective Studies
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Procaine
  • chloroprocaine

Associated data

  • figshare/10.6084/m9.figshare.11213033