Augmentation Phalloplasty for Acquired Penile Shortening: A Systematic Review of Techniques, Outcomes, Patient Satisfaction, and Limitations

J Sex Med. 2020 Feb;17(2):331-341. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2019.11.260. Epub 2019 Dec 9.


Introduction: Although an infrequent cause of small penile size in adult men, acquired penile shortening represents a particular reconstructive challenge due to preexisting penile anatomic deformities.

Aim: With numerous techniques being performed, the purpose of our study is to assess available literature on length enhancement procedures used for acquired penile shortening deformities.

Methods: A systematic review was performed using the guidelines outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses. Medline/PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Databases were used to identify papers on augmentation Phalloplasty in non-transgender males with acquired penile shortening from 1990 to 2018.

Main outcome measure: Outcomes, complications, and patient-reported satisfaction were analyzed.

Results: 12 articles, involving 931 patients and 8 primary procedures, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of articles had level of evidence of 4 (83%) and Newcastle Ottawa Scale score of 6 (92%, moderate risk of bias). All studies reported mean penile length gain; however, inconsistent methodology was used when measuring penile dimensions. Mean length gain ranged from 0.6 to 6.4 cm. Overall, the mean complication rate for all techniques ranged from 0% to 50%. Post-operative satisfaction was reported in 10 (83%) studies, 7 of which used a validated scale. Patients were generally satisfied, with reported satisfaction rates ranging from 77% to 100%.

Clinical implications: While numerous procedures have been described, the significant limitations in the available data preclude identifying a single superior procedure.

Strengths & limitations: The significant heterogeneity in the reported literature is a limitation of this study and highlights the need for standardized reporting. However, this study is the first to analyze augmentation phalloplasty literature in the setting of acquired penile shortening.

Conclusion: Augmentation phalloplasty techniques for acquired penile shortening are evolving and are continuously being modified; best-practice guidelines are crucial to achieve safe and satisfactory outcomes in this population. Abu-Ghname A, Banuelos J, Davis MJ, et al. Augmentation Phalloplasty for Acquired Penile Shortening: A Systematic Review of Techniques, Outcomes, Patient Satisfaction, and Limitations. J Sex Med 2020;17:331-341.

Keywords: Acquired Penile Shortening; Augmentation Phalloplasty; Penile Enhancement; Penile Lengthening; Peyronie's Disease.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Patient Satisfaction*
  • Penile Induration / surgery
  • Penis / surgery*
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods*
  • Postoperative Period