[Current clinical applications of three-dimensional echocardiography]

G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2019 Dec;20(12):722-735. doi: 10.1714/3271.32381.
[Article in Italian]


Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) represents one of the most innovative advances in cardiovascular imaging over the last 20 years. Recent technological developments have fueled the full implementation of 3DE in clinical practice and expanded its impact on patient diagnosis, management, and prognosis. One of the most important clinical applications of transthoracic 3DE has been the quantitation of cardiac chamber volumes and function. The main limitations affecting two-dimensional echocardiography calculations of chamber volumes (i.e. geometric assumptions about cardiac chamber shape and view foreshortening) are overcome by 3DE that allows an actual measurement of their volumes. Transesophageal 3DE has been applied mainly to assess the anatomy and function of heart valves, congenital defects and masses in the beating heart. As reparative cardiac surgery and transcatheter procedures have become more and more popular to treat structural heart disease, transesophageal 3DE has become not only one of the main imaging modalities for procedure planning but also for intra-procedural guidance and assessment of procedural results. New image rendering modalities such as 3D printing, holographic display, and fusion of 3DE images with other radiological or nuclear modalities will further expand the clinical applications and indications of 3DE.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Echocardiography / methods
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Heart Diseases / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Diseases / physiopathology
  • Heart Diseases / surgery
  • Heart Valves / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans