Objectives: To perform a systematic review of studies reporting the outcome of fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of isolated duplex collecting system (DCS).
Methods: Inclusion criteria were studies reporting the outcome of fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of isolated DCS, defined as DCS not associated with other major structural anomalies at the time of diagnosis. The outcomes observed were: imaging features of DCS on prenatal ultrasound, associated anomalies detected exclusively at prenatal follow-up ultrasound and at birth, abnormal karyotype, symptoms at birth (including vesicoureteral reflux [VUR] and urinary tract infections [UTI]), need for and type of surgical approach, complications after surgery, and accuracy of prenatal ultrasound in correctly identifying this anomaly.
Results: Eleven studies (284 fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of DCS) were included. On ultrasound, DCS was associated with ureterocele in 70.7% and with megaureter in 36.6% of cases. Worsening of pelvic/ureteric dilatation was reported to occur in 41.3% of fetuses. At birth, 4.3% of fetuses affected by DCS showed associated renal anomalies. After birth, VUR and UTI presented in 51.3% and 21.7% of children respectively, while 33.6% required surgery. Prenatal diagnosis of DCS was confirmed in 90.9% of included cases.
Conclusion: DCS diagnosed prenatally is associated with a generally good outcome. Prenatal ultrasound has a good diagnostic accuracy, while detailed postnatal assessment is required in order to identify associated renal anomalies.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.