Comorbid conditions associated with painful temporomandibular disorders in adolescents from Brazil, Canada and France: A cross-sectional study

J Oral Rehabil. 2020 Apr;47(4):417-424. doi: 10.1111/joor.12923. Epub 2020 Jan 5.


Background: Painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is common among adolescents. Presence of painful comorbidities may worsen painful TMD and impact treatment effectiveness.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the association between painful TMD and comorbidities.

Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, adolescents were recruited in Montreal (Canada), Nice (France) and Arceburgo (Brazil). Reliable instruments were used to assess painful TMD and comorbidities. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the study aims.

Results: The prevalence of self-reported painful TMD was estimated at 31.6%; Arceburgo (31.6%), Montreal (23.4%) and Nice (31.8%). Painful TMD was more common among girls than boys (OR = 1.96). Painful TMD was associated with a higher number of comorbidities (OR = 1.77); Arceburgo (OR = 1.81), Montreal (OR = 1.80) and Nice (OR = 1.72). A stronger association was found between painful TMD and headaches (OR = 4.09) and a weaker one with stomach pain (OR = 1.40). Allergies were also related to painful TMD (OR = 1.43).

Conclusion: Painful TMD was associated with comorbidities. Headaches were consistently associated with painful TMD. Other associations were modified by sex and/or covariates related to the cities where participants were recruited.

Keywords: adolescents; comorbidities; epidemiology; oro-facial pain; pain; temporomandibular disorders.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Facial Pain
  • Female
  • France
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pain
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders*