Anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects of paeoniflorin and total glucosides of paeony

Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Mar;207:107452. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.107452. Epub 2019 Dec 10.


As a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas has been used to treat pain, inflammation and immune disorders for more than 1000 years in China. Total glycoside of paeony (TGP) is extracted from the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas. Paeoniflorin (Pae) is the major active component of TGP. Our research group has done a lot of work in the pharmacological mechanisms of Pae and found that Pae possessed extensive anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects. Pae could inhibit inflammation in the animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as experimental arthritis, psoriatic mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and so on. Pae modulates the functions and activation of immune cells, decreases inflammatory medium production, and restores abnormal signal pathway. Pae could balance the subsets of immune cells through inhibiting abnormal activated cell subsets and restoring regulatory cell subsets. Pae could regulate signaling pathways (GPCR pathway, MAPKs /NF-κB patway, PI3K /Akt /mTOR pathway, JAK2 /STAT3 pathway, TGFβ /Smads, and etc.). TGP is composed of Pae, hydroxyl-paeoniflorin, paeonin, albiflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin etc. Pae accounts for more than 40% of TGP. Like Pae, TGP has anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects. TGP has been widely used to treat autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and etc. in China. Furthermore, TGP has some superior features with immune regulation, gentle effect, many indications and few adverse drug reactions. These findings suggest that TGP may be a promising anti-inflammatory and immune drug with soft regulation and has more superiority in the treatment of AIDs. Currently, TGP is used for the treatment of RA, SLE and other AIDs in more than 1000 hospitals in China, which obtained great social and economic benefits.

Keywords: Anti-inflammation and immune regulation; Autoimmune diseases; Paeoniflorin; Total glucosides of paeony; Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Glucosides / pharmacology
  • Glucosides / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use*
  • Monoterpenes / pharmacology
  • Monoterpenes / therapeutic use*
  • Paeonia*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Glucosides
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Monoterpenes
  • peoniflorin