The bioavailability of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1988 Apr;34(2):195-207. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.34.195.

Abstract

We estimated the utilization of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats, and the effect of oxalic acid on absorption of dietary calcium by using calcium-deficient rats. The body weight gain of the calcium-deficient rats for 8 days receiving a calcium-deficient diet supplemented with raw-powdered spinach (R-sp), boiled-powdered spinach (B-sp), or calcium-oxalate (Ca-ox), and a control diet supplemented with oxalic acid (OX-C) were 4.8, 2.8, 4.9, and 5.1 g, respectively. The calcium content in the liver and kidney of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets significantly increased as compared with the calcium-deficient rats. Significant differences in the liver calcium levels were not observed among the rats receiving various additional diets, though the content in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets were 28.0, 21.5, 0.11, and 0.59 mg, respectively. An especially large amount of calcium was accumulated in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The calcium concentration in the serum of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than the calcium concentration in the serum of the R-sp, B-sp, and calcium-deficient rats. The calcium content in the left tibiae of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than that of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats was highest in the OX-C group, and higher in the R-sp and Ca-ox groups than the breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats fed on B-sp diet. The alkaline phosphatase activity in the small intestines of the rats rose in the order of the R-sp, B-sp, and Ca-ox groups, although significant differences of the activity were not observed between the Ca-ox and the OX-C groups. The calcium retention of the rats receiving the calcium-deficient, R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets was -18.5, 35.2, 25.6, 41.6, and 45.8%, respectively. About 35% of the calcium in the spinach was absorbed by the calcium-deficient rats, and oxalic acid depressed the calcium absorption in the rats.

MeSH terms

  • Absorption
  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Bone and Bones / physiopathology
  • Calcium / blood
  • Calcium / deficiency
  • Calcium / pharmacokinetics*
  • Calcium Oxalate / pharmacokinetics*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver / pathology
  • Male
  • Organ Size
  • Oxalates / pharmacology
  • Oxalic Acid
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Tensile Strength
  • Tibia
  • Vegetables*
  • Weaning

Substances

  • Oxalates
  • Calcium Oxalate
  • Oxalic Acid
  • Calcium