Background: Pediatric hemodialysis (HD) patients have a high incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The study aim was to investigate whether impedance cardiography (electrical velocimetry, EV) is suitable as a hemodynamic trend monitoring tool in pediatric patients during HD.
Methods: Measurements by EV were obtained before, during, and after HD in a prospective single-center pediatric observational study. In total, 54 dialysis cycles in four different pediatric patients with end-stage kidney disease on chronic HD were included. EV parameters analyzed were heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), stroke volume index (SI), cardiac output (CO), cardiac index (CI), thoracic fluid content (TFC), index of contractility (ICON), stroke volume variation (SVV), variation of ICON (VIC), R-R interval (TRR), pre-ejection period (PEP), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), and systolic time ration (STR). Systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) was calculated.
Results: EV did measure significant changes in cardiovascular parameters associated with HD. The following parameters increased after HD: HR (9%), SVV (19%), VIC (33%), PEP (8%), and STR (18%). A decrease after HD was measured in SV (18%), SI (18%), CO (10%), CI (10%), TFC (10%), ICON (7%), TRR (7%), LVET (8%), and LVET (8%). SVRI was not affected by HD. The changes were correlated to ultrafiltration. HD cycles without fluid withdrawal also altered cardiovascular parameters.
Conclusions: Pediatric HD with and without fluid withdrawal changes hemodynamic EV monitoring parameters. Possibly EV may be useful to optimize HD management in pediatric patients.
Keywords: Cardiac index; Fluid status; Hemodialysis; Impedance cardiography; Pediatrics; Renal failure.