Textile dyeing industry: environmental impacts and remediation

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Feb;27(4):3803-3818. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-07137-z. Epub 2019 Dec 14.


Color is a major attraction component of any fabric regardless of how admirable its constitution. Industrial production and utilization of synthetic dyestuffs for textile dyeing have consequently become a gigantic industry today. Synthetic dyestuffs have introduced a broad range of colorfastness and bright hues. Nonetheless, their toxic character has become a reason of serious concern to the environment. Usage of synthetic dyestuffs has adverse impacts on all forms of life. Existence of naphthol, vat dyestuffs, nitrates, acetic acid, soaping chemicals, enzymatic substrates, chromium-based materials, and heavy metals as well as other dyeing auxiliaries, makes the textile dyeing water effluent extremely toxic. Other hazardous chemicals include formaldehyde-based color fixing auxiliaries, chlorine-based stain removers, hydrocarbon-based softeners, and other non-biodegradable dyeing auxiliaries. The colloidal material existing alongside commercial colorants and oily froth raises the turbidity resulting in bad appearance and unpleasant odor of water. Furthermore, such turbidity will block the diffusion of sunlight required for the process of photosynthesis which in turn is interfering with marine life. This effluent may also result in clogging the pores of the soil leading to loss of soil productivity. Therefore, it has been critical for innovations, environmentally friendly remediation technologies, and alternative eco-systems to be explored for textile dyeing industry. Different eco-systems have been explored such as biocolors, natural mordants, and supercritical carbon-dioxide assisted waterless dyeing. Herein, we explore the different types of dyeing processes, water consumption, pollution, treatment, and exploration of eco-systems in textile dyeing industry.

Keywords: Cellulose textile fibers; Dyeing; Ecology; Environmentally; Sustainable dyeing; Toxicology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Coloring Agents / analysis
  • Coloring Agents / chemistry*
  • Environment
  • Industrial Waste* / analysis
  • Textile Industry*
  • Textiles


  • Coloring Agents
  • Industrial Waste