Endocrinological Toxicity Secondary to Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (GEP-NENs)

Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Mar;31(3):239-255. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2019.11.003. Epub 2019 Dec 12.


Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are increasingly recognized, characterized by prolonged survival even with metastatic disease. Their medical treatment is complex involving various specialties, necessitating awareness of treatment-related adverse effects (AEs). As GEP-NENs express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), long-acting somatostatin analogs (SSAs) that are used for secretory syndrome and tumor control may lead to altered glucose metabolism. Everolimus and sunitinib are molecular targeted agents that affect glucose and lipid metabolism and may induce hypothyroidism or hypocalcemia, respectively. Chemotherapeutic drugs can affect the reproductive system and water homeostasis, whereas immunotherapeutic agents can cause hypophysitis and thyroiditis or other immune-mediated disorders. Treatment with radiopeptides may temporarily lead to radiation-induced hormone disturbances. As drugs targeting GEP-NENs are increasingly introduced, recognition and management of endocrine-related AEs may improve compliance and the quality of life of these patients.

Publication types

  • Review