Link between omentin-1, obesity and insulin resistance in children: Findings from a longitudinal intervention study

Pediatr Obes. 2020 May;15(5):e12605. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12605. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Abstract

Objective: The adipokine omentin-1 has been suggested to be inversely associated with obesity and insulin resistance in humans. We studied the relationships between omentin-1, parameters of fat mass, insulin resistance, lipids and blood pressure in children with obesity in a longitudinal study.

Methods: We analysed omentin-1 concentrations in 23 normal-weight children and in 82 children with obesity participating in a one-year lifestyle intervention. In the children with obesity, omentin-1, bioactive and conventional leptin, thyroid hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine 4, free triiodothyronine), body mass index, waist circumference, body fat based on skin-fold measurements and bioimpedance analyses, lipids, insulin resistance as homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and blood pressure were determined at baseline and 1 year later. Furthermore, we measured omentin-1 concentrations 1 year after the end of the lifestyle intervention.

Results: The omentin-1 concentrations were significantly (P = .008) lower in children with obesity compared to normal-weight children (296 ± 108 ng ml-1 vs. 232 ± 99 ng ml-1 ). Omentin-1 concentrations increased significantly (P < .001) in children with obesity and substantial weight loss (35 ± 55 ng ml-1 ), while omentin-1 concentrations did not change significantly (P = .750) in children with obesity without weight loss (-5 ± 108 ng ml-1 ) during the intervention. Substantial weight loss after the end of intervention led to a significant (P < .001) increase of omentin-1 concentrations (+64 ± 14 ng ml-1 ). Omentin-1 was significantly and negatively associated with HOMA-IR both in cross-sectional (r = -.27, P = .006) and longitudinal analyses (r = -.33, P = .001). Omentin-1 concentrations were not related to pubertal stage, sex or thyroid hormones.

Conclusions: Our data do support the hypothesis that omentin-1 is reversibly decreased in obesity and is a link between obesity and insulin resistance.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00435734.

Keywords: bioactive leptin; insulin resistance; lifestyle intervention; weight loss.

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / physiopathology
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Cytokines / genetics*
  • Female
  • GPI-Linked Proteins / blood
  • GPI-Linked Proteins / genetics
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology*
  • Lectins / blood*
  • Lectins / genetics*
  • Leptin / blood
  • Lipids / blood
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Obesity / blood*
  • Obesity / genetics*
  • Obesity / physiopathology

Substances

  • Cytokines
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • ITLN1 protein, human
  • Lectins
  • Leptin
  • Lipids

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00435734