Combination of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nano-hydroxyapatite Scaffold Enhances Bone Regeneration

Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019 Sep 14;7(17):2739-2750. doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2019.730. eCollection 2019 Sep 15.


Background: Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAF-MSCs) have a high proliferative capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. The combination of hAF-MSCs with three-dimensional (3D) scaffold has a promising therapeutic potential in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Selection of an appropriate scaffold material has a crucial role in a cell supporting and osteoinductivity to induce new bone formation in vivo.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate and evaluate the osteogenic potential of the 2nd-trimester hAF-MSCs in combination with the 3D scaffold, 30% Nano-hydroxyapatite chitosan, as a therapeutic application for bone healing in the induced tibia defect in the rabbit.

Subject and methods: hAF-MSCs proliferation and culture expansion was done in vitro, and osteogenic differentiation characterisation was performed by Alizarin Red staining after 14 & 28 days. Expression of the surface markers of hAF-MSCs was assessed using Flow Cytometer with the following fluorescein-labelled antibodies: CD34-PE, CD73-APC, CD90-FITC, and HLA-DR-FITC. Ten rabbits were used as an animal model with an induced defect in the tibia to evaluate the therapeutic potential of osteogenic differentiation of hAF-MSCs seeded on 3D scaffold, 30% Nano-hydroxyapatite chitosan. The osteogenic differentiated hAF-MSCs/scaffold composite system applied and fitted in the defect region and non-seeded scaffold was used as control. The histopathological investigation was performed at 2, 3, & 4 weeks post-transplantation and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was assessed at 2 & 4 weeks post-transplantation to evaluate the bone healing potential in the rabbit tibia defect.

Results: Culture and expansion of 2nd-trimester hAF-MSCs presented high proliferative and osteogenic potential in vitro. Histopathological examination for the transplanted hAF-MSCs seeded on the 3D scaffold, 30% Nano-hydroxyapatite chitosan, demonstrated new bone formation in the defect site at 2 & 3 weeks post-transplantation as compared to the control (non-seeded scaffold). Interestingly, the scaffold accelerated the osteogenic differentiation of AF-MSCs and showed complete bone healing of the defect site as compared to the control (non-seeded scaffold) at 4 weeks post-transplantation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis confirmed these findings.

Conclusion: The combination of the 2nd-trimester hAF-MSCs and 3D scaffold, 30% Nano-hydroxyapatite chitosan, have a therapeutic perspective for large bone defect and could be used effectively in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Keywords: 3D Scaffolds; Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells; Bone Healing; Bone Regeneration; Nano-hydroxyapatite Chitosan.