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Anti-obesity Effects of Dichloromethane Leaf Extract of Gnidia glauca in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

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Anti-obesity Effects of Dichloromethane Leaf Extract of Gnidia glauca in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

Wycliffe Makori Arika et al. Heliyon.

Abstract

Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased adipose tissue mass due to positive energy balance. Prescription of anti-obesity drugs can be useful adjuncts to diet and exercise for obese patients who have failed to achieve weight loss. However, these drugs are ineffective and are associated with adverse effects. In recent times, medicinal plants have drawn a sharp focus owing to their biocompatibility and effectiveness. Attempts to determine the therapeutic effects and identification of bio-active principles from herbal prescriptions have become the prime focus in the validation of their folkloric usage and in drug discovery programs. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effects of Dichloromethane leaf extract of Gnidia glauca in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats.

Methods: Obesity was induced experimentally in white albino Wistar rats by feeding them with prepared high-fat-diet and water ad libitum for a period of 12 weeks. The in-vivo anti-obesity effects were determined by oral administration of Gnidia glauca at dosage levels of 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg body weight from the 6th to 12th week of study. Phytochemical analysis of Gnidia glauca was conducted using gas chromatography linked to mass spectrophotometer.

Results: The results indicated that Gnidia glauca exhibited potent anti-obesity effects. It significantly reduced the body weight, organ weights, organo-somatic indices, anthropometric indices, the total fat content, adiposity index, atherogenic index as well as various lipid profiles. It also decreased the total feed intake. However, it significantly increased levels of high-density lipoproteins and rectal body temperature of rats. Quantitative phytochemical analysis also revealed the presence of various phytocompounds that have shown to be associated with anti-obesity effects.

Conclusion: The anti-obesity effects of Gnidia glauca maybe attributed to the phytochemicals present. The present study, therefore, scientifically validates the traditional use of Gnidia glauca as a potential candidate for the synthesis of new effective anti-obesity supplement.

Keywords: And anthropometric indices; Biological Sciences; Chemistry; Dichloromethane; Food Science; Gnidia glauca; Health Sciences; High-fat-diet (HFD); Obesity; Phytochemicals; Toxicology; Veterinary medicine.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
The mean percentage change in body weights of experimental rats treated with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca for 6 weeks. Each point on the curve represents the replicate measurement n = 5. The mean percentage changes in body weights of animals are expressed as Mean ± S.D per week. The weekly percentage changes in body weights of rats among the studied groups with a similar lower-case letter (such as ‘d’) are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). However, the weekly percentage changes in body weights of rats with different lower-case letters (such as a, b, c & d) indicates statistical difference in means among the studied groups (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
The body weights (g) of experimental animals on the 6th week of treatment with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca. Each bar graph represents the mean replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D. The bar graphs with a similar lower-case letter (such as ‘d’) among experimental groups are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). The bar graphs with different lower-case letters (such as a, b, c & d) are statistically different from each other (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
The mean percentage change in obesity index of experimental animals treated with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca for 6 weeks. Each point on the curve represents the mean of the replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D. The weekly percentage changes in obesity index among the studied groups with a similar lower-case letter (such as [c, cd] or [d & cd] are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). However, the weekly percentage changes in obesity index of rats with different lower-case letters (such as a, b, c & d) indicates statistical difference in means among the studied groups (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
The Lee obesity index of experimental animals on the 6th week of treatment with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca. Each bar graph represents the mean replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D. The bar graphs with a similar lower-case letter (such as ‘c’) among experimental groups are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). The bar graphs with different lower-case letters (such as a, b & c) are statistically different from each other (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
The mean percentage change in Abdominal Circumference (AC) of experimental animals treated with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca for 6 weeks. Each point on the curve represents the mean of the replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D. The weekly percentage changes in abdominal circumference of rats among the studied groups with a similar lower-case letter (such as ‘c’) are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). However, the weekly percentage changes in abdominal circumference of rats with different lower-case letters (such as a, b & c) indicates statistical difference in means among the studied groups (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
The abdominal circumference (cm) of experimental animals on the 6th week of treatment with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca. Each bar graph represents the mean replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D. The bar graphs with a similar lower-case letter (such as [c & cd] or [d & cd) among experimental groups are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). The bar graphs with different lower-case letters (such as a, b, c & d) are statistically different from each other (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7
The mean percentage change in fasting blood glucose levels of experimental animals treated with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca for 6 weeks. Each point on the curve represents the mean of the replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D. The weekly percentage changes in fasting blood glucose levels among the studied groups with a similar lower-case letter (such as [c & cd] or [d & cd) are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). However, the weekly percentage changes in fasting blood glucose levels with different lower-case letters (such as a, bc & d) indicates statistical difference in means among the studied groups (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8
The fasting blood glucose levels (mmole/L) of experimental animals on the 6th week of treatment with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca. Each bar graph represents the mean replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D. The bar graphs with a similar lower-case letter (such as [b & bc], [c, bc & cd] or [e & ed]) among experimental groups are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). The bar graphs with different lower-case letters (such as a, b, cd & e) are statistically different from each other (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9
The mean percentage change in rectal body temperature of experimental animals treated with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca for 6 weeks. Each point on the curve represents the mean of the replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D. The weekly percentage changes in rectal body temperature among the studied groups with a similar lower-case letter (such as ‘a’) are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). However, the weekly percentage changes in rectal body temperature with different lower-case letters (such as a, b & c) indicates statistical difference in means among the studied groups (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10
The rectal body temperature (˚C) of experimental animals on the 6th week of treatment with the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca. Each bar graph represents the mean replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D. The bar graphs with a similar lower-case letter (such as ‘a’) among experimental groups are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). The bar graphs with different lower-case letters (such as a, b & c) are statistically different from each other (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11
The graph depicts the ratio of feed intake to body weight of rats per week following administration of the DCM leaf extract of Gnidia glauca for 6 weeks. Each bar represents the replicate measurement n = 5 expressed as Mean ± S.D at 99% confidence interval. The weekly changes in feed intake among the studied groups with a similar lower-case letter (such as [a & ab], [b, ab, & bc], [c, bc & cd], [d, cd & de] or [e & de]) are not significantly different from each other (p > 0.01). However, the weekly percentage changes in obesity index of rats with different lower-case letters (such as a, b, c, d & e) indicates statistical difference in means among the studied groups (p ≤ 0.01). Inferential statistics were performed using One way-ANOVA to test for statistical differences among studied groups. Tukey's post hoc test was then done for pairwise separation and comparison of means.

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