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Review
. 2019 Dec 13;9(4):221.
doi: 10.3390/diagnostics9040221.

Imaging Measurement of Whole Gut Transit Time in Paediatric and Adult Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis

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Free PMC article
Review

Imaging Measurement of Whole Gut Transit Time in Paediatric and Adult Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis

Hayfa Sharif et al. Diagnostics (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common conditions in children and adults, often associated with abnormalities of whole gut transit. Currently, transit tests can be performed using several imaging methods, including tracking of radiopaque markers, gamma scintigraphy with the use of radioisotopes, magnetic tracking methods, tracking of movement of wireless motility capsules, and emerging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches.

Objectives: to review recent literature on diagnostic imaging techniques used to investigate whole gut transit in FGIDs.

Methods: a systematic review was carried out. The different techniques are described briefly, with particular emphasis on contemporary literature and new developments, particularly in the field of MRI.

Conclusions: emerging MRI capsule marker methods are promising new tools to study whole gut transit in FGIDs.

Keywords: MRI; colon; constipation; dysmotility; imaging; irritable bowel syndrome; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; transit.

Conflict of interest statement

L.M. is the first author of patents and the principal investigator in research grants relating to MRI measurement of gastrointestinal transit. The other authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Flow diagram of the results of the systematic search of the literature. Adapted from Moher et al. (2009) and preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) [26].
Figure 2
Figure 2
A plain abdominal X-ray image of radiopaque markers (ROMs) in the colon of a patient with constipation.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Colonic transit study images acquired with gamma scintigraphy. Reproduced with permission from [61]; published by Springer, 1979.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Magnetic tracking system with a wireless telemetric capsule showing the record of space–time representation of capsule activity through the colon. Reproduced with permission from [70]; published by John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing five MRI marker capsules in the colon (indicated by close arrows). Reproduced with permission from [71]; published by John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Anatomical reference images of 19F capsule positions and the fitted intestinal course for (a) subject A and (b) subject B. Stomach (S), gall bladder (G) and small intestine (I) are denoted in the figure. The color code reflects the time course of the two capsules. Reproduced with permission from [78]; published by John Wiley & Sons, 1984.

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