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. 2019 Dec 14;11(12):2022.
doi: 10.3390/cancers11122022.

Immunotherapy in Pediatric Solid Tumors-A Systematic Review

Free PMC article

Immunotherapy in Pediatric Solid Tumors-A Systematic Review

Raoud Marayati et al. Cancers (Basel). .
Free PMC article


Despite advances in the treatment of many pediatric solid tumors, children with aggressive and high-risk disease continue to have a dismal prognosis. For those presenting with metastatic or recurrent disease, multiple rounds of intensified chemotherapy and radiation are the typical course of action, but more often than not, this fails to control the progression of the disease. Thus, new therapeutics are desperately needed to improve the outcomes for these children. Recent advances in our understanding of both the immune system's biology and its interaction with tumors have led to the development of novel immunotherapeutics as alternative treatment options for these aggressive malignancies. Immunotherapeutic approaches have shown promising results for pediatric solid tumors in early clinical trials, but challenges remain concerning safety and anti-tumor efficacy. In this review, we aim to discuss and summarize the main classes of immunotherapeutics used to treat pediatric solid tumors.

Keywords: cancer vaccines; chimeric antigen receptors; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunomodulation; immunotherapy; oncolytic viral therapy; pediatric solid tumors.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.


Figure 1
Figure 1
A schematic representation of the Bispecific T-cell Engager (BiTE) technology. The BiTE antibody connects the CD3 binding site on T cells with a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) specific to tumor cells. This triggers T cell activation and cytokine release, ultimately resulting in an anti-tumor response. The anti-CD3 single-chain variable fragment (scFv, shown in purple) is shared by all BiTE antibodies. The target antigen-specific scFv (in light green) is different for each BiTE antibody and can recognize targets such as CD19 or EpCAM.

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