The intricate molecular network shared between diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer has been broadly understood. DM has been associated with several hormone-dependent malignancies, including breast, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer (CRC). Insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and inflammation are the main pathophysiological mechanisms linking DM to cancer. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), particularly microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are widely appreciated as pervasive regulators of gene expression, governing the evolution of metabolic disorders, including DM and cancer. The ways ncRNAs affect the development of DM complicated with cancer have only started to be revealed in recent years. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is a master regulator of pathophysiological processes directing DM and cancer. In this review, we briefly summarize a number of well-known miRNAs and lncRNAs that regulate the IGF-1R in DM and cancer, respectively, and further discuss the potential underlying molecular pathogenesis of this disease association.
Keywords: IGF-1R; cancer; diabetes; lncRNAs; micoRNAs.