The intestinal microbiota and the expanded endocannabinoid (eCB) system, or endocannabinoidome (eCBome), have both been implicated in diet-induced obesity and dysmetabolism. These systems were recently suggested to interact during the development of obesity. We aimed at identifying the potential interactions between gut microbiota composition and the eCBome during the establishment of diet-induced obesity and metabolic complications. Male mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet for 56 days to assess jejunum, ileum, and cecum microbiomes by 16S rRNA gene metataxonomics as well as ileum and plasma eCBome by targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The HFHS diet induced early (3 days) and persistent glucose intolerance followed by weight gain and hyperinsulinemia. Concomitantly, it induced the elevation of the two eCBs, anandamide, in both ileum and plasma, and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, in plasma, as well as alterations in several other N-acylethanolamines and 2-acylglycerols. It also promoted segment-specific changes in the relative abundance of several genera in intestinal microbiota, some of which were observed as early as 3 days following HFHS diet. Weight-independent correlations were found between the relative abundances of, among others, Barnesiella, Eubacterium, Adlercreutzia, Parasutterella, Propionibacterium, Enterococcus, and Methylobacterium and the concentrations of anandamide and the anti-inflammatory eCBome mediator N-docosahexaenoyl-ethanolamine. This study highlights for the first time the existence of potential interactions between the eCBome, an endogenous system of multifunctional signaling lipids, and several intestinal genera during early and late HFHS-induced dysmetabolic events, with potential impact on the host capability of adapting to increased intake of fat and sucrose.IMPORTANCE The intestinal microbiota and the expanded endocannabinoid system, or endocannabinoidome, have both been implicated in diet-induced obesity and dysmetabolism. This study aims at identifying the potential interactions between these two fundamental systems-which form the gut microbiota-endocannabinoidome axis-and their involvement in the establishment of diet-induced obesity and related metabolic complications. We report here time- and segment-specific microbiome disturbances as well as modifications of intestinal and circulating endocannabinoidome mediators during high-fat, high-sucrose diet-induced glucose intolerance and subsequent obesity and hyperinsulinemia. This highlights the involvement of, and the interaction between, the gut microbiota and the endocannabinoidome during metabolic adaptation to high-fat and high-sucrose feeding. These results will help identifying actionable gut microbiome members and/or endocannabinoidome mediators to improve metabolic health.
Keywords: endocannabinoidome; gut microbiota; high-fat; high-sucrose; intestine; obesity.
Copyright © 2019 Lacroix et al.