Gallic acid affects blood-brain barrier permeability, behaviors, hippocampus local EEG, and brain oxidative stress in ischemic rats exposed to dusty particulate matter

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Feb;27(5):5281-5292. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-07076-9. Epub 2019 Dec 17.


Dust storms are environmental natural events that transport high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in living spaces. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution is associated with stroke. In the present study we aimed to investigate the probable protective effects of gallic acid (GA) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, brain oxidative stress, anxiety, depression, locomotion behaviors, and changes of hippocampal local electroencephalogram (local EEG) power induced by 4-vessel transient occlusion (4VO I/R) following exposure to dusty PM in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: (1) vehicle+Sham (Veh + Sh), (2) vehicle+4VO I/R (Veh + I/R), (3) gallic acid+sham (GA + Sh), (4) gallic acid+4VO I/R (GA + I/R), (5) vehicle+PM (Veh + PM), (6) PM + 4VO I/R (PM + I/R), (7) gallic acid+PM + Sham (GA + PM + Sh), and (8) gallic acid+PM + 4Vo I/R (GA + PM + I/R). 4VO type of I/R was induced after 10 days of pretreatment by GA 100 mg/kg/2 ml/ip, or 2 ml/kg/ip, normal saline as vehicle (Veh) and exposure to dust storm composed of dusty PM (DPM, 2000-8000 μg/m3), 60 min daily for consecutive 10 days) simultaneously. Seventy-two hours after I/R induction, all behavioral tests and BBB permeability evaluation were done. Hippocampus local EEG was recorded just before and 72 h after I/R induction, and finally brain tissue oxidative stress was assayed. Data showed that 4VO I/R following exposure to DPM increased BBB permeability (p < 0.001), brain oxidative stress (p < 0.001), induced anxiety (p < 0.001), depression (p < 0.01), locomotion impairment (p < 0.001), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and local EEG power also were decreased in PM + Sh (p < 0.001). Pretreatment with GA reversed BBB permeability and MDA. Our findings suggest that GA is a probable protective agent against adverse effects of both I/R and exposure to DPM and also in I/R subjects exposed to DPM. The beneficial effects of GA may induce by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

Keywords: 4VO-I/R; Anxiety; Depression; Dust storm; GA; Local EEG.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / drug effects*
  • Brain
  • Dust
  • Electroencephalography
  • Gallic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Hippocampus
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • Particulate Matter / toxicity*
  • Permeability
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Dust
  • Particulate Matter
  • Protective Agents
  • Gallic Acid