We conducted a narrative review of the medical and surgical management of people with obesity and diabetes. Results of this review showed that a 5-10% loss in body weight can be achieved with a change in lifestyle, diet and behaviour and with approved pharmacological therapies in people with obesity and diabetes. New targeted therapies are now available for patients with previously untreatable genetic causes of obesity. Compared to medical treatment, metabolic and bariatric surgery is associated with significantly higher rates of remission from type 2 diabetes and lower rates of incident macrovascular and microvascular complications and mortality. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the American Diabetes Association endorse metabolic and bariatric surgery in obese adults with type 2 diabetes and there may also be a role for this in obese individuals with type 1 diabetes. The paediatric committee of the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery have recommended metabolic and bariatric surgery in obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes. Earlier and more aggressive treatment with metabolic and bariatric surgery in obese or overweight people with diabetes can improve morbidity and mortality.
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