Interaction of DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A Genotype with in-Store Retail Food Environment Exposures on Diet Quality in a Cohort of Quebec Adults

Lifestyle Genom. 2020;13(2):74-83. doi: 10.1159/000504603. Epub 2019 Dec 18.


Background/aims: Gene-environment interactions may be relevant for nutrition outcomes. This study assessed the interaction between DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotype and exposures to in-store retail food environment on diet quality.

Methods: CARTaGENE biobank data (n = 3,532) were linked to provincial food retail data. The Canadian adaptation of the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-C) was calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Generalized linear models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, anthropometrics, and energy intake were used to assess interactions between the Taq1A variant and retail food measures.

Results: A significant inverse interaction was observed between Taq1A and ice cream store displays on HEI-C score (estimate: -15.46 [95% confidence interval (CI): -24.83, -6.10], p = 0.0012) where, among allele carriers, increasing exposure to ice cream displays was associated with a lower HEI-C score as compared to allele carriers with a lower exposure. A significant positive interaction between Taq1A and price of vegetables was also observed, where, among allele carriers, increasing exposure to a higher price was associated with a higher HEI-C score compared to allele carriers with exposure to a lower price (estimate: 2.46 [95% CI: 0.78, 4.14], p = 0.0041). The opposite pattern was observed among non-carriers.

Conclusions: DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A is associated with adaptive responses to ice cream displays and vegetable prices, suggesting a differential susceptibility to retail environment food cues.

Keywords: Diet quality; Differential susceptibility; Dopamine receptor; Gene-environment interaction; Marketing; Population study; Retail food environment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alleles
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific / metabolism
  • Diet
  • Diet Surveys*
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Gene-Environment Interaction*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genotype*
  • Geography
  • Humans
  • Ice Cream
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics*
  • Quebec
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vegetables


  • DRD2 protein, human
  • Receptors, Dopamine D2
  • ANKK1 protein, human
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific
  • TCGA-specific type II deoxyribonucleases