High-throughput quantification of the post-translational modification of many individual protein samples is challenging with current label-based methods. This paper demonstrates an efficient method that addresses this gap by combining Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) and self-assembled monolayers for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SAMDI-MS) to analyze intact proteins. This high-throughput approach begins with polyhistidine-tagged protein substrates expressed from linear DNA templates by CFPS. Here, we synthesized an 87-member library of the E. coli Immunity Protein 7 (Im7) containing an acceptor sequence optimized for glycosylation by the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae N-glycosyltransferase (NGT) at every possible position along the protein backbone. These protein substrates were individually treated with NGT and then selectively immobilized to self-assembled monolayers presenting nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) complexes before final analysis by SAMDI-MS to quantify the conversion of substrate to glycoprotein. This method offers new opportunities for rapid synthesis and quantitative evaluation of intact glycoproteins.