Importance: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a common, life-threatening complication of treatment for cancer. Predicting BSI before onset of clinical symptoms would enable preemptive therapy, but there is no reliable screening test.
Objective: To estimate sensitivity and specificity of plasma microbial cell-free DNA sequencing (mcfDNA-seq) for predicting BSI in patients at high risk of life-threatening infection.
Design, setting, and participants: A prospective pilot cohort study of mcfDNA-seq for predicting BSI in pediatric patients (<25 years of age) with relapsed or refractory cancers at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, a specialist quaternary pediatric hematology-oncology referral center. Remnant clinical blood samples were collected during chemotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Samples collected during the 7 days before and at onset of BSI episodes, along with negative control samples from study participants, underwent blinded testing using a mcfDNA-seq test in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments/College of American Pathologists-approved laboratory.
Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcomes were sensitivity of mcfDNA-seq for detecting a BSI pathogen during the 3 days before BSI onset and specificity of mcfDNA-seq in the absence of fever or infection in the preceding or subsequent 7 days.
Results: Between August 9, 2017, and June 4, 2018, 47 participants (27 [57%] male; median age [IQR], 10 [5-14] years) were enrolled; 19 BSI episodes occurred in 12 participants, and predictive samples were available for 16 episodes, including 15 bacterial BSI episodes. In the 3 days before the onset of infection, predictive sensitivity of mcfDNA-seq was 75% for all BSIs (12 of 16; 95% CI, 51%-90%) and 80% (12 of 15; 95% CI, 55%-93%) for bacterial BSIs. The specificity of mcfDNA-seq, evaluated on 33 negative control samples from enrolled participants, was 82% (27 of 33; 95% CI, 66%-91%) for any bacterial or fungal organism and 91% (30 of 33; 95% CI, 76%-97%) for any common BSI pathogen, and the concentration of pathogen DNA was lower in control than predictive samples.
Conclusions and relevance: A clinically relevant pathogen can be identified by mcfDNA-seq days before the onset of BSI in a majority of episodes, potentially enabling preemptive treatment. Clinical application appears feasible pending further study.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03226158.