Diabetes

Book
In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2024 Jan.
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Excerpt

Diabetes mellitus is taken from the Greek word diabetes, meaning siphon - to pass through and the Latin word mellitus meaning sweet. A review of the history shows that the term "diabetes" was first used by Apollonius of Memphis around 250 to 300 BC. Ancient Greek, Indian, and Egyptian civilizations discovered the sweet nature of urine in this condition, and hence the propagation of the word Diabetes Mellitus came into being. Mering and Minkowski, in 1889, discovered the role of the pancreas in the pathogenesis of diabetes. In 1922 Banting, Best, and Collip purified the hormone insulin from the pancreas of cows at the University of Toronto, leading to the availability of an effective treatment for diabetes in 1922. Over the years, exceptional work has taken place, and multiple discoveries, as well as management strategies, have been created to tackle this growing problem. Unfortunately, even today, diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the country and worldwide. In the US, it remains as the seventh leading cause of death.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease, involving inappropriately elevated blood glucose levels. DM has several categories, including type 1, type 2, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), gestational diabetes, neonatal diabetes, and secondary causes due to endocrinopathies, steroid use, etc. The main subtypes of DM are Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which classically result from defective insulin secretion (T1DM) and/or action (T2DM). T1DM presents in children or adolescents, while T2DM is thought to affect middle-aged and older adults who have prolonged hyperglycemia due to poor lifestyle and dietary choices. The pathogenesis for T1DM and T2DM is drastically different, and therefore each type has various etiologies, presentations, and treatments.

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