Analytical Methodology for Trace Determination of Propoxur and Fenitrothion Pesticide Residues by Decanoic Acid Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles

Molecules. 2019 Dec 17;24(24):4621. doi: 10.3390/molecules24244621.


A sensitive, rapid, reliable, and easily applicable method based on magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with HPLC-PDA was developed for monitoring propoxur (PRO) and fenitrothion (FEN) pesticides in environmental water samples. The effect of major experimental variables on the extraction efficiency of both the pesticides was investigated and optimized systematically. For this purpose, a new magnetic material containing decanoic acid on the surface of particles was synthesized and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EDX, and TGA analysis in detail. The simultaneous determination of pesticide molecules was carried out by using a Luna Omega C18 column, isocratic elution of acetonitrile (ACN): Water (70:30 v/v) with a flow rate of 1.2 mL min-1. After MSPE, the linear range for pesticide molecules (r2 > 0.9982) was obtained in the range of 5-800 and 10-800 ng mL-1, respectively. The limit of detections (LOD) are 1.43 and 4.71 ng mL-1 for PRO and FEN, respectively while RSDs % are below 3.5%. The applicability of the proposed method in four different environmental samples were also investigated using a standard addition-recovery procedure. Average recoveries at two spiking levels were over the range of 91.3-102.5% with RSD < 5.0% (n = 3). The obtained results show that decanoic acid grafted magnetic particles in MSPE combined with HPLC-PDA is a fast and simple method for the determination of PRO and FEN in environmental water samples.

Keywords: HPLC; environmental water samples; fenitrothion; magnetic solid phase extraction; propoxur.

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Decanoic Acids / analysis
  • Decanoic Acids / chemistry*
  • Decanoic Acids / isolation & purification
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Fenitrothion / analysis
  • Fenitrothion / chemistry*
  • Fenitrothion / isolation & purification
  • Limit of Detection
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Molecular Structure
  • Pesticide Residues / analysis
  • Pesticide Residues / chemistry*
  • Pesticide Residues / isolation & purification
  • Propoxur / analysis
  • Propoxur / chemistry*
  • Propoxur / isolation & purification
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Solid Phase Extraction


  • Decanoic Acids
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles
  • Pesticide Residues
  • decanoic acid
  • Propoxur
  • Fenitrothion