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. 2019 Dec 19;10(1):5.
doi: 10.3390/bs10010005.

Psychological Mediation of Dysfunction and Hyperfunction of Respiratory Regulation

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Free PMC article

Psychological Mediation of Dysfunction and Hyperfunction of Respiratory Regulation

Julia Koniukhovskaia et al. Behav Sci (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

This research investigates the continuum between the dysfunction and the hyperfunction of breath regulation and presents the psychological mediation that supports or disrupts this regulation. The pilot study compared breathing regulation in patients with hyperventilation syndrome (HVS), free divers, and healthy volunteers. To examine the ability of voluntary respiration regulation, breath holding involving "easy-going" and "struggling" phases was used. Psychological mediation was assessed through (a) respiratory experience interviews, (b) anxiety levels, and (c) psycho-semantic techniques. Free divers have a bigger "positive breathing vocabulary" and can endure the conflict between the physiological need to inhale and the voluntary motivation to hold their breath for longer. The connection between emotions and negative breathing experience in patients with HVS leads to less breathing control.

Keywords: anxiety; breath holding; clinical psychology; diving; hyperventilation; respiratory mechanics; self-control.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
The average duration of breath hold parameters. Conventional sign: * The significant differences are p < 0.05, ** the significant differences are p < 0.005.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Durations of breath holding from first to fourth tests. Conventional sign: * The significant differences are p < 0.05, ** the significant differences are p < 0.005.
Figure 3
Figure 3
The results of the Nijmegen Questionnaire and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Conventional sign: * The significant differences are p < 0.05, ** the significant differences are p < 0.005.
Figure 4
Figure 4
The volumes of vocabulary in the classification of sensations (%). Conventional sign: * The significant differences are p < 0.05, ** the significant differences are p < 0.005.

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